What Do You Know?
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There are younglings and young adults who believe that ISIS is fighting for a right cause. There is the need to go and join their cause, because this, in their mind, is Islam, this is what Muslims do.
Using short scale, there are around 1 Billion and 700 Million Muslims in the world. There are news reports stating there are between 32.000 to 100.000 active fighting ISIS members (at the current time decreasing) and there is some unknown number around the world that believe in the ideals of ISIS.
Hypothetical claim; even if there were 10 million supporters of ISIS, there would be still 99,41% of all Muslims who would not believe in the ideals of ISIS.
Reuters, Elsevier, The Huffington Post
In 2014 126 representatives of the Muslim community (the 1.7 billion) send a 22 page open letter, addressed to the self-anointed leader Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi and the fighters and followers of the self-declared “Islamic State”.
(Scroll to the bottom for The Executive Summary of the letter and the 2014 list of representatives who signed the letter).
The letter denounces the “Islamic State” militants and refutes their religious arguments.
Considering who have signed the letter, the letter gives a “wagging finger” on behalf of the remaining plus one and more than a half Billion, Muslims of the world.
For the ones wondering;
‘how do you calculate the hypothetical claim?’
10.000.000 / 1.700.000.000 x 100 = 0,59%
10 million supporters of ISIS out of 1 Billion 700 Million Muslims times 100 = 0,59% ISIS supporters.
100% – 0,59% = 99,41%
All Muslims 100% minus ISIS supporters 0,59% = 99,41% NON ISIS supporters.
It is an important letter,
Among the 126 representatives, who signed the letter and are from various different countries, there are 5 former and current Grand Muftis (highest official of religious law in a Muslim country) and 8 Scholars from Cairo’s Al-Azhar University, the highest seat of Sunni learning. Currently there are more representatives adding their names and supporting the letter on the ‘letter to baghdadi‘ website (for “unknown” reasons sometimes the website is very hard to reach).
If you are interested, read The letter, but be aware that the letter is not meant for a liberal audience, ‘even mainstream Muslims might find it difficult to read’, ‘it’s aim is to offer a comprehensive Islamic refutation, “point-by-point,” said Nihad Awad, executive director of the Council of American-Islamic Relations (quotes from ‘The Huffington Post’), although ‘The Executive Summary’ should make the content clear.
As we know, unfortunately Al Baghdadi did not listen to the 126 Scholars and as far as we know, continues to indoctrinate his believes.
But at least in 2014 a message was send out into the world that 99,99% of the Muslims in the world are against ISIS,… right?
So 99,99% Of The Muslims In The World Are Against ISIS And Their Ideals?
The two major branches within the Muslim community (the 1.7 Billion) are Sunni (87%-90%) and Shia (10%-13%).
And within those branches there is an unknown % of liberal, conservatism and ultra conservatism.
- The difference between Sunni and Shia were initially stemmed on political views and later included also the views and teachings of the Hadith (will be explained later on).
- ISIS came up with their own unique view and interpretations. Asking the question why, is a good start.
So, What Do Muslims Deal With?
Quran – ‘word of God delivered by the Angel Gabriel to Muhammad (S)’
Highly respected scripture in the Muslim community, it has been forbidden to change or add words since it was delivered to Muhammad (S).
Sunni: Muhammad (S) received the words from God through the Angel Gabriel, over the course of 23 years and recited the verses to his companions.
Shia: Muhammad (S) received the words from God through the Angel Gabriel in 1 night and recited the verses, over the course of 23 years, to his companions.
After the death of Muhammad (S), the first Caliph in the Muslim community ‘Abu Bakr’, ordered the companions to gather all Quran verses.
The third Caliph ‘Oethman’, ordered to bundel the Quran in the right order and distribute it to the Muslim countries.
The Quran is the reason why Muslims feel there is unity, every Muslim can at least recite one verse or chapter from the Quran and it is deemed to be the only religious scripture that has not been changed in 1400 years.
Quranism – ‘rejects Hadith literature’.
Describes any form of Islam that accepts the Quran as revelation, but rejects the religious authority and or authenticity of the Hadith collections.
Quranists only follow the Quran
Currently this is assumed to be a small unknown % of Muslims.
Hadith – ‘reports that contain the sayings acts or tacit approvals, validly or invalidly, ascribed to Muhammad (S)’.
The literal meaning is ‘statement’ or ‘talk’, plural is ahaadith.
Written 200/ 250 years after the death of Muhammad (S).
Within Sunni, there are 6 books written by 6 different Scholars,
Within Shia, there are 4 books written by 4 different Scholars,
The Scholars received the reports from several layers of authorities of several tribes, tribes with different (political) views.
An indication of the amount of ahaadith (reports)
Al Bukhari (who wrote the first book) received up to 600.000 ahaadith out of which 7397 ahaadith with repetition and 2602 ahaadith without repetition remain, the remaining +/- 592.000 ahaadith that were left out, were deemed not authentic, meaning the authority of the person who reported was questioned while the subject itself may or may have not been false.
It should be understood, that when one speaks of 600,000 ahaadith, one does not mean the number of separate items of information. Each Hadith has two parts, the isnad (chain of authorities through which it is transmitted) and the matn (text). If one would find the same text with, say, three different isnads, that would be considered to represent three traditions.
The Muslim community expects that the diverse types of Scholars can be consulted when there are questions about the religion.
Past and Current Situation, Opinions Of Scholars (Shia & Sunni):
- The Hadith is not obligatory.
- The Hadith is obligatory.
- Not all of the ahaadith were written 200 / 250 years after the death of Muhammad (S).
- The Hadith was prohibited by Muhammad (S).
- The Hadith was not prohibited by Muhammad (S).
- Muhammad (S) allowed for the Hadith to be written after the Quran was finished.
- Since the Hadith has been written there have been debates about the authenticity of certain ahaadith.
- The Quran message is clear and complete, it can therefore be fully understood without referencing the Hadith.
- It is not possible to have a Quran only Islam, because the concept of five pillars of Islam are from the Hadith and are not described or defined in the Quran in any way.
- On Individual ahaadith (reports) isnad is performed in the form of sahih (“authentic”), hasan (“good”) or da’if (“weak”). However, there is no overall agreement: different groups and different individual Scholars may classify a hadith (report) differently.
- The Shia does not perform isnad, all ahaadith are considered authentic.
- Mohammad(S) appointed a successor before he passed away (Ali, Shia).
- Mohammad(S) did not appointed a successor before he passed away (Sunni).
(The points are few of the (many?) reasons why there are (big) differences in the history about Muhammad’s(S) life and spoken statements).
A Scholars Research and Analysis:
There are four sources from which Muslim Scholars extract religious law or rulings and upon which they base their *fatwa (the word will be explained in a moment).
- The Quran
- The Sunnah, which incorporates anything that the Prophet Mohammad (S) said, did or approved of (the Hadith).
- The consensus of the Scholars, meaning that if the Scholars of a previous generation have all agreed on a certain issue, then this consensus is regarded as representing Islam.
- If no scripture is found regarding a specific question using the first three sources, then an Islamic Scholar performs what is known as ijtihad. Ijthad means that the Scholars use their own logic and reasoning to come up with the best answer according to the best of their ability. A scholar who is qualified to perform jitihad is called a Mujtahid.
Historical Sunni & Shia;
Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (Senior companion, friend and father in law of Muhammad(S)).
Ali ibn Abi Talib (Cousin and son in law of Muhammad(S)).
The word ‘Sunni’;
Comes from a word meaning ‘one who follows the traditions of the Prophet’.
The word ‘Shia’;
means a group or supportive party of people. The commonly-known term is shortened from the historical ‘Shia-t-Ali,’ or ‘the Party of Ali’.
After the death of Muhammad (S), Abu Bakr was appointed the first Caliph of the Muslim community, however the supporters of Ali did not agree with the appointment of Abu Bakr. They were of the opinion that the Caliph of the Muslim community was not supposed to be chosen, but that the leadership needed to be inherited by a family member of Muhammad (S) see also Fatwa Shia 10-15%. The Sunni Muslims rejected this theology and are of the opinion that believing in God and his Messenger(s) are not related to family or blood ties.
This brings great differences in the way Sunni and Shia study and experience Islam.
So, What Does This Mean In Practice?
Knowing from experience, in the west not all Muslims read the Quran or consult the Sunni 6 or Shia 4 Hadith books. Most Muslims, from child to elder people, learn about their religion through their parents, grandparents, siblings, friends, Imams or go on the internet and ask around. If there are developments or society questions need to be answered, the Scholar provides those answers, the quality of the answers depends on if the Scholar keeps up to the current status quo, does proper research, keeps in touch with multiple Scholars and how the Scholar sees the relation between religion and human.
This is off course one way for a person to experience religion, there is nothing wrong with listening to parents, family members, Imams or other type of scholars, but it does mean that one has to have a certain level of sensibility when one has never read the Quran or ever consulted the Hadith. Knowledge has an important role.
An example of, how some Muslims with limited knowledge are influenced.
In past years (maybe since 1989 – Salman Rushdie), the word *fatwa has been used in west media to indicate death sentence.
*Fatwa, Sunni 85-90%:
The arabic word Fatwa literally means ‘opinion’,
A fatwā is an Islamic legal pronouncement, issued by an expert in religious law (Mufti), pertaining to a specific issue,
usually at the request of an individual or Qadi (judge) to resolve an issue where Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh), is unclear.
The fatwa is not legally binding or final, it is a respected interpretation by a Mufti on a particular case.
If the individual has second thoughts about the fatwa given he/she can seek out another Scholar for a second opinion (for the reason why see ‘A Scholars Research and Analysis‘ and ‘Past and Current Situation, Opinions of Scholars‘). If a fatwā does not break new ground, then it is simply called a ruling.
If a Qadi (judge) or individual or group would like to have advise or has a question on a new issue (e.g. is Pokemon Go gambling/ blasphemy?), they might ask a Mufti for a fatwa.
Above definition is not necessarily a formal position since many Muslims argue that anyone trained in Islamic law may give a fatwā (opinion) on its teachings.
In Saudia Arabia only a selected few Scholars are authorized to issue fatwa, because there were contradicting statements and fatwas issued by different Scholars and Imams. The website IslamQA.info, who provides answers to questions in line with the Salafi school of thought (ultra conservatism, one example is the Burqa), was banned in Saudia Arabia because they were issuing fatwa while they were, and still are, not authorized to do so.
*Fatwa Shia 10-15%;
To understand the Shia Fatwa one must know the history a little bit.
Note: The titles Ayatollah, Marja al-taqlid (Ayatollah Uzma, Grand Ayatollah) do not exist with Sunni Muslims.
The Marja al-taqlid has the lead of the (Shia) Muslim community in *absence of the Imam
*The Twelver Shia community is the largest branche of the Shia muslims.
One believes in the twelve Imams. The Imams were descendants of Muhammad(S). Starting with Ali and ending with Imam Mahdi. The Imam has the central teaching authority on (Shia) Islam and he has a close relationship with God through which God guides him, and the Imam in turn guides the people.
Since all descendants via Ali are deceased, there is no Imam anymore. However the believe is that Imam Mahdi wil return at the end of time. Meanwhile the Marja al-taqlid leads the Shia Muslim community.
When a Shia has reached the age of shar‘ī (puberty), one can start making a choice as to who is going to be the Marja al-taqlid for him or her. This is called taqlid (following) of a Mujtahid (it is not obligatory to follow only one) who at a certain point can be called an Ayatollah by his peers, who then can be chosen to be Marja al-taqlid (Ayatollah Uzma, Grand Ayatollah)
Person who is obliged to act in accordance with God’s orders and to perform worshipping (religiously responsible or accountable).
An individual, who is qualified to perform ijtihad when evaluation religious law.
The Shia conditions to be qualified differ with the conditions of the Sunni.
Ayatollah (means: sign of God):
There is no official ceremony to become an Ayatollah, if a person is found worthy and learned enough by his peers, on is called an Ayatollah.
Marja al-taqlid (source of following), also known as Ayatollah Uzma (Grand Ayatollah):
A council of Shia elders decide if an Ayatollah can become a Marja al-taqlid.
Among the conditions necessary for assuming the position Marja al-taqlid six are judged indispensable: maturity (bulugh), intelligence (akl), faith (imam), justice (adalat), being of legitimate birth (taharat-i mawlid) and of the male sex (dhukurat)
- Those who carry the title Ayatollah are experts in the Shia Islamic studies of jurisprudence, ethics and philosophy.
- Only the Ayatollah is allowed to give/issue a fatwa.
- Only a fatwa given by the highest rank of Ayatollahs (Marja al-taqlid, Ayatollah Uzma, Grand Ayatollah) is binding, this can be only unbound by the same Ayatollah or an Ayatollah with the same rank.
- Only Ayatollahs can become Marja al-taqlid.
On the website of Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (Iran) there is an Q&A section where the question is asked:
Q: Is it obligatory to act on an opinion with respect to the identification of a subject on which a rule is determined?
A: The responsibility of identifying the subject rests with the mukallaf. Therefore, he is not obliged to follow the identification of his mujtahid.
For example, if one determines the rule;
Everthing that is steel may not be touched and adds his opinion, one might as well destroy all steel.
One is not obliged to act on the opinion.
Currently there are -/+ 43 Marja al-taqlid (Ayatollah Uzma, Grand Ayatollah) of which
22 are in Iran, 10 in India, 5 in Iraq, 3 in Pakistan and 2 in Afghanistan, 1 in Canada.
Below table is an estimate of the Shia population per country rounded up to the highest count.
The Leader of ISIS: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi:
There is not much known about the leader of ISIS, except that he has changed his original name and claims to be a descendant of Ali via Hosayn, Hosayn is the Grandson of Muhammad(S) and third Imam of the twelve Imams in Shia Islam. There is the opinion he is trying to (mis)use the religious leadership system of Shia Islam to gain Shia followers besides Sunni Muslims.
The journalists Harald Doornbos en Jenan Moussa have published a research report on the site of Foreign Policy about the creation of ISIS. An excerpt of the report in which a ISIS militant says; ‘A state would offer a home to Muslims from all over the world. Because al Qaeda had always lurked in the shadows, it was difficult for ordinary Muslims to sign up. But an Islamic state, Baghdadi argued, could attract thousands, even millions, of like-minded jihadis. It would be a magnet’.
By quoting and pulling out of context of (adjusted) Quran verses and ahaadith and by claiming to be a descendant, he managed to attract foreigners with limited to no knowledge about the faith. These foreigners are commanders in his army, these foreigners were named the ‘crazies’ by the militants.
So, What Happens?
Since not all Muslims are Scholars and Scholars don’t always agree, it is not so wise to assume that all Muslims know everything about their religion or even agree with each other. And it is proven to be dangerous and embarrassing for a Muslim to blindly believe (un)known diverse type of Scholars, people or websites, without asking questions or doing proper research if one has doubts about the reasoning behind a fatwa or statement.
As long as media and politicians report and focus on one (unique) branche of Islam, you might find (unfortunately not inconceivable) that along side the non Muslims, west Muslims with limited knowledge start also believing that, that one (unique) branche represent the whole of Islam.
But, one also might think, the media should ask a reaction or comment from the Muslim community.
Who should the media ask,… the representatives of Sunni? Shia? Or the ultra conservatives of both sides? Where would they find these representatives? Which organization speaks for all of them? Should the media ask the opinion of all the branches? Should the media grab a person from the street?
What about The Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) ?
The position of OIC after the Cartoons of Muhammad (S) in a Danish Newspaper (2005) and the not so well researched word ‘fatwa’ use by the media and the lack of knowledge of some west Muslims and multiple other factors, resulted in violent demonstrations and deaths.
So it is not strange that we do not hear much about OIC in the Media.
Besides the news about the war or the atrocities there are also the opinion pieces.
Opinions stating that although the general Muslim community says that ISIS is not Muslim, they are Muslims.
For the Muslim community it is very simple.
One can be a Muslim and perform non Muslim deeds, meaning, one can be a Muslim and steel something, but steeling is not what makes you a Muslim. Therefore the actions and believe system of ISIS are called non Muslim, by the Muslim community.
Something comparable to indicate how most Muslims think about ISIS. If someone would pick up the Harry Potter books and called that the promotion of Witchcraft and Satanism, I am sure that many, if not most people who have read the books or saw the movies, would find that completely ridiculous, because people know what the epic story is about (making choices, friendship, love, adventure, loss, growing up, jealousy, sacrifice, loyalty, good versus bad, heroism). But nonetheless there always will be people who would find that it make sense. Even without reading the books or having seen the movies, just because someone with conviction, who puts full focus on a few moments in the books, says it is so.
What Do You Know?
I think you have understood by now, that all is not as clear cut as some people try to make you believe. There is a level of complexity that one has to consider before making judgements. As long as non Muslims and west Muslims, ‘with limited knowledge’, do not know the diversity of the Muslim community, there will be fear (spread?).
Sources are available at the bottom of the page
The Executive Summary Of The Open Letter:
Excerpt from ‘A Scholars Research and Analysis’:
3. Concensus of Sholars, If the Scholars of a previous generation have all agreed on a certain issue, then this consensus is regarded as representing Islam.
|1|| It is forbidden in Islam to issue fatwas without all the necessary learning requirements. Even then fatwas must follow Islamic legal theory as defined in the Classical texts.
It is also forbidden to cite a portion of a verse from the Qur’an or part of a verse to derive a ruling without looking at everything that the Qur’an and Hadith teach related to that matter. In other words, there are strict subjective and objective prerequisites for fatwas, and one cannot ‘cherry pick’ Qur’anic verses for legal arguments without considering the entire Qur’an and Hadith.
|2||It is forbidden in Islam to issue legal rulings about anything without mastery of the Arabic language.|
|3||It is forbidden in Islam to oversimplify Shari’ah matters and ignore established Islamic sciences.|
|4||It is permissible in Islam [for scholars] to differ on any matter, except those fundamentals of religion that all Muslims must know.|
|5||It is forbidden in Islam to ignore the reality of contemporary times when deriving legal rulings.|
|6||It is forbidden in Islam to kill the innocent.|
|7||It is forbidden in Islam to kill emissaries, ambassadors, and diplomats; hence it is forbidden to kill journalists and aid workers.|
|8||Jihad in Islam is defensive war. It is not permissible without the right cause, the right purpose and without the right rules of conduct.|
|9||It is forbidden in Islam to declare people non-Muslim unless he (or she) openly declares disbelief.|
|10||It is forbidden in Islam to harm or mistreat —in any way—Christians or any ‘People of the Scripture’.|
|11||It is obligatory to consider Yazidis as People of the Scripture|
|12||The re-introduction of slavery is forbidden in Islam. It was abolished by universal consensus.|
|13||It is forbidden in Islam to force people to convert.|
|14||It is forbidden in Islam to deny women their rights.|
|15||It is forbidden in Islam to deny children their rights.|
|16||It is forbidden in Islam to enact legal punishments (hudud) without following the correct procedures that ensure justice and mercy.|
|17||It is forbidden in Islam to torture people.|
|18||It is forbidden in Islam to disfigure the dead.|
|19||It is forbidden in Islam to attribute evil acts to God.|
|20||It is forbidden in Islam to destroy the graves and shrines of Prophets and Companions.|
|21||Armed insurrection is forbidden in Islam for any reason other than clear disbelief by the ruler and not allowing people to pray.|
|22||It is forbidden in Islam to declare a caliphate without consensus from all Muslims.|
|23||Loyalty to one’s nation is permissible in Islam.|
|24||After the death of the Prophet, Islam does not require anyone to emigrate anywhere.|
List Of 126 Signatures
|1||HE the Sultan Muhammad Sa’ad Ababakar||The Sultan of Sokoto, Head of the Nigerian National Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs|
|2||Prof. Abdul-Rahman Abbad||Prof. of Islamic Studies at the College of Al-Qur’an Al-Karim, and Secretary of the Body of Scholars and Preachers, Jerusalem|
|3||Mr. Omar Abboud||Secretary-General of the Institute for Interreligious Dialogue, Buenos Aires, Argentina|
|4||Prof. Salim Abdul-Jalil||Former Undersecretary for da’wah at the Awqaf Ministry, and Professor of Islamic Civilization at Misr University for Science & Technology, Egypt|
|5||Sheikh Wahid Abdul-Jawad||Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt|
|6||Dr. Mustafa Abdul-Kareem||Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt|
|7||Prof. Ibrahim Abdul-Rahim||Professor of Shari’ah, Dar al-Ulum College, Cairo University, Egypt|
|8||Prof. Jafar Abdul-Salam||Secretary-General of the League of Islamic Universities and Prof. of International Humanitarian Law, Egypt|
|9||HE Dr. Sheikh Hussain Hasan Abkar||Chairman of the Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs and Imam of the Muslims in the Republic of Chad, Chad|
|10||HE Prince Judge Bola AbdulJabbar Ajibola||Islamic Mission for Africa (IMA) and Founder of Crescent University, Nigeria|
|11||HE Prof. Sheikh Shawqi Allam||The Grand Mufti of Egypt, Egypt|
|12||Prof. Sheikh Abdul Nasser Abu Al-Basal||Professor at Yarmouk University, Jordan|
|13||Prof. Mohammad Mahmoud Abu-Hashem||Vice-President of Al-Azhar University and member of the Centre for Islamic Research at Al-Azhar Al-Sharif, Egypt|
|14||HE Prof. Sheikh Mustafa Cagrici||Former Mufti of Istanbul, Turkey|
|15||Sheikh Mohammad Ahmad Al-Akwa’||Senior Sunni Scholar, Yemen|
|16||Prof. Mohammad Al-Amir||Dean of the Faculty of Islamic Studies for Girls, Al-Mansoura University, Egypt|
|17||Dr. Majdi Ashour||Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt|
|18||Prof. Dr. Abdul-Hai Azab||Dean of the Faculty of Shari’ah and Law, Al-Azhar|
|19||Azhar Aziz||President of the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), USA|
|20||Prof. Mustafa Abu Sway||The Integral Professorial Chair for the Study of Imam Ghazali’s Work, Jerusalem|
|21||Prof. Bakr Zaki Awad||Dean of the Faculty of Theology, Al-Azhar University, Egypt|
|22||Nihad Awad||National Executive Director of the Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR), USA|
|23||Dr. Sheikh Osama Mahmoud Al-Azhari||Islamic Preacher, Egypt|
|24||Dr. Jamal Badawi||Executive Director of the Fiqh Council of North America, USA|
|25||Dr. Ihsan Bagby||Associate Professor of Islamic Studies at the University of Kentucky, and Council Member of the Fiqh Council of North America, USA|
|26||Naeem Baig||President of the Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA), USA|
|27||Prof. Osman Bakr||International Centre for Islamic Studies, Malaysia|
|28||Sheikh Abu Bakr Baldi||Head of the African community in Portugal, Portugal|
|29||Dr. Hatem Bazian||Chairman of American Muslims for Palestine (AMP), USA|
|30||Dr. Mohammed Bechari||Member of the International Islamic Fiqh Academy, and President of the French National Federation of Muslims, France|
|31||HE Shaykh Abdallah bin Bayyah||Leading Muslim Scholar and President of the Forum for Promoting Peace in Muslim Societies, Abu Dhabi|
|32||HRH Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad||Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought, Jordan|
|33||Al-Habib Muhammad Luthfi bin Ali bin Yahya||Islamic Preacher, Indonesia|
|34||HE Sheikh Dr. Ra’ed Abdullah Budair||Member of the Body of Scholars and Preachers, Jerusalem|
|35||Dr. Mohammad Abdul Sam’i Budair||Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt|
|36||Dr. Sameer Budinar||Muslim Scholar and Director of the Centre for Humanities and Social Studies, Morocco|
|37||Dr. Zahid Bukhari||Executive Director of the Center for Islam and Public Policy (CIPP), USA|
|38||HE Prof. Mustafa Ceric||Former Grand Mufti of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|39||HE Mr. Ibrahim Chabbouh||Tunisian Scholar, Tunisia|
|40||Prof. Caner Dagli||Professor of Islamic Studies, USA|
|41||Prof. Jamal Farouq Al-Daqqaq||Professor at Al-Azhar University, Egypt|
|42||Seyyed Abdullah Fadaaq||Islamic Preacher and Scholar, Saudi Arabia|
|43||Sheikh Wahid Al-Fasi Al-Fahri||Head of the Federation of Italian Muslims, Italy|
|44||Prof. Mohammad Nabil Ghanayim||Professor of Shari’ah, Dar al-Ulum College, Cairo University, Egypt|
|45||Sheikh Dr. Ali Gomaa||Former Grand Mufti of Egypt, Egypt|
|46||HE Dr. Ahmad Abdul-Aziz Al-Haddad||Head of the Fatwa Department, Dubai, UAE|
|47||Dr. Abdullah Hafizi||Secretary-General of the International Association for Idrisid Sherifs and their Cousins, Morocco|
|48||HE Sheikh Mustafa Hajji||The Mufti of Bulgaria, Bulgaria|
|49||Sheikh Ali Al-Halabi||Author and Islamic Preacher, Jordan|
|50||Sheikh Hamza Yusuf Hanson||Founder and Director of Zaytuna College, USA|
|51||Sheikh Farouq Aref Hasan||The Integral Professorial Chair for the Study of Imam Fakhr Al-Din Al-Razi’s Work, Jordan|
|52||HE Sheikh Ali bin Abdul Rahman Aal Hashem||Advisor to HH the Head of State for Judicial and Religious Affairs, UAE|
|53||Dr. Ahmad Hassan||Professor of Da’wah and Irshad, Yemen|
|54||Sheikh Musa Hassan||Secretary-General of Majma’ al-Ummah, Sweden|
|55||HE Prof. Mohammad Al-Hifnawi||Professor of Usul al-Fiqh at the Faculty of Shari’ah and Law at Al-Azhar University, Tanta branch, Egypt|
|56||Prof. Sami Hilal||Dean of the College of the Holy Qur’an, Tanta University, Egypt|
|57||Prof. Sa’d al-Din Al-Hilali||Head of the Department of Comparative Jurisprudence at Al-Azhar University, Egypt|
|58||Ed Husain||Senior Fellow in Middle Eastern Studies, (CFR), UK|
|59||Imam Monawar Hussain||Founder of the Oxford Foundation, UK|
|60||HE Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad Hussein||Mufti of Jerusalem and All Palestine, Palestine|
|61||HE Sheikh Ibrahim Saleh Al-Husseini||Head of the Supreme Council for Fatwa and Islamic Affairs, Nigeria|
|62||Dr. Jabri Ibrahim||Head of the Preaching and Guidance Department at the Yemeni Awqaf Ministry, Yemen|
|63||Dr. Khaled Imran||Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt|
|64||Prof. Salah al-Din Al-Ja’farawi||Assistant Secretary-General of the European Islamic Conference, Consultant for the Ibn Sina Institute in France , and Consultant to the Muhammad bin Rashid Al Maktoum Charitable Foundation, Germany|
|65||Dr. Omar Jah||Head of the Sheikh Abdullah Jah Charity Foundation, Gambia|
|66||Oussama Jammal||Secretary-General of the U.S. Council of Muslim Organizations (USCMO), USA|
|67||Sheikh Muqbil Al-Kadhi||Islamic Preacher, Yemen|
|68||Prof. Muhammad Hashem Kamali||Founding Chairman and CEO of the International Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies, Afghanistan|
|69||Prof. Enes Karic||Bosnian Scholar, Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|70||Yusuf Z. Kavakci||Prof. Dr. (Emeritus), USA|
|71||Sheikh Ahmad Wisam Khadhr||Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt|
|72||Sheikh Muhammad Wisam Khadhr||Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt|
|73||Sheikh Abdul-Majeed Khayroun||Union of Mosques, the Netherlands|
|74||Sheikh Mohammad Yahya Al-Kittani||Preacher & Imam, Egypt|
|75||Sheikh Dr. Mohammad Al-Kumein||Professor of Da’wah, Yemen|
|76||Sheikh Amr Mohamed Helmi Khaled||Islamic Preacher and Founder and President of the Right Start Global Foundation, Egypt|
|77||Prof. Judge Maher Alyan Khudair||Supreme Shari’ah Court Judge and member of the Body of Scholars and Preachers in Jerusalem, Palestine|
|78||Shaykh Prof. Ahmad Al-Kubaisi||Founder of the ‘Ulema Association, Iraq|
|79||Prof. Joseph E. B. Lumbard||Professor at Brandeis University, USA|
|80||HE Sheikh Mahmood As’ad Madani||Secretary-General of Jamiat Ulema-i-Hind, India|
|81||Prof. Dr. Abdul Hamid Madkour||Professor of Islamic Philosophy, Dar al-Ulum College, Cairo University, Egypt|
|82||Sheik Mohamed Magid||ADAMS Center, USA|
|83||Prof. Mohammad Mukhtar Al-Mahdi||Professor of Islamic Studies, Al-Azhar University and President of the Shari’ah Society, Egypt|
|84||Imam al-Sadiq Al-Mahdi||Chairman of the National Umma Party, Sudan|
|85||Sheikh Ahmad Mamdouh||Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt|
|86||Prof. Bashar Awad Marouf||Iraqi Scholar, Author and Historian, Iraq|
|87||Mr. Bakkay Marzouq||French National Federation of Muslims, France|
|88||Sheikh Moez Masoud||Islamic Preacher, Egypt|
|89||Prof. Mohammad Abdul Samad Muhanna||Advisor to the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar Al-Sharif, Egypt|
|90||Sheikh Mukhtar Muhsen||Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt|
|91||Professor Fathi Awad Al-Mulla||Pundit and consultant for the Association of Islamic Universities, Egypt|
|92||Sheikh Hussein Al-Obeidi||Sheikh of the Al-Zaytuna Grand Mosque, Tunisia|
|93||Dr. Yasir Qadhi||Professor of Islamic Studies, Rhodes College, USA|
|94||Dr. Muhammad Tahir Al-Qadri||Founder of Minhaj-ul-Qur’an International, Pakistan|
|95||Sheikh Mohammad Hasan Qarib-Allah||Muslim Scholar, Sudan|
|96||Mr. Abdul Hadi Al-Qasabi||Grand Sheikh of the Sufi Tariqahs in Egypt, Egypt|
|97||Prof. Saif Rajab Qazamil||Professor of Comparative Jurisprudence, Al-Azhar University, Egypt|
|98||Sheikh Faraz Rabbani||Islamic Scholar and Founder of SeekersGuidance, Canada|
|99||Sheikh Ashraf Sa’ad||Muslim Scholar, Egypt|
|100||Sheikh Dr. Hmoud Al-Sa’idi||Islamic Preacher and Undersecretary at the Yemeni Ministry of Awqaf, Yemen|
|101||Sheikh Hasan Al-Sheikh||Head of Religious Affairs at the Salah Mosque, the largest mosque in Yemen, Yemen|
|102||Sheikh Mahmoud Al-Sharif||Head of the Association of Sherifs in Egypt, Egypt|
|103||HE Sheikh Abdullah Al-Sheikh Sae’eed||Head of the Association of Islamic Scholars in Kurdistan, Kurdistan|
|104||Dr. Mohamad Adam El Sheikh||Executive Director of the Fiqh Council of North America, USA|
|105||Dr. Mohammad Sammak||Secretary-General of the National Committee for Christian-Muslim Dialogue, Lebanon|
|106||Dr. Zulfiqar Ali Shah||Secretary General of the Fiqh Council of America, USA|
|107||Prof. Ismail Abdul-Nabi Shaheen||Vice President Al-Azhar University and Deputy Secretary-General of the League of Islamic Universities, Egypt|
|108||Dr. Omar Shahin||Secretary General of the North American Imam Federation,|
|109||Imam Talib M. Shareef||President of the Nation’s Mosque, Masjid Muhammad, USA|
|110||Dr. Ahmad Shqeirat||Member of the North American Imams Federation, USA|
|111||Dr. Muzammil Siddiqi||Chairman of the Fiqh Council of North America, USA|
|112||Dr. Muddassir H. Siddiqui||Council Member of the Fiqh Council of North America, USA|
|113||Prof. Nabil Al-Smalouti||Professor of Sociology and former Dean of the Department of Humanities, Al-Azhar University, Egypt|
|114||HE Prof. M. Din Syamsuddin||President of Muhammadiyah, and Chairman of the Indonesian Council of Ulama, Indonesia|
|115||Dr. Mohammad Tallabi||Muslim Scholar and leader in the Tawhid and Islah Movement, Morocco|
|116||Eng. Salmann Tamimi||Founder of the Muslim Association of Iceland, Iceland|
|117||HE Sheikh Na’im Ternava||The Mufti Kosovo, Kosovo|
|118||Dr. Muhammad Suheyl Umar||Director of Iqbal Academy, Pakistan|
|119||Mr. Mohammad Wadgiri||Head of the Muslim community in Belgium, Belgium|
|120||HE Dato’ Wan Zahidi bin Wan Teh||Former Mufti of Malaysia’s Federal Territories , Malaysia|
|121||Dr. Amr Wardani||Fatwa Council (Dar al-Ifta’), Egypt|
|122||HE Prof. Muhammad Al-Mukhtar Wuld-Abah||President of Chinguitt Modern University, Mauritania|
|123||Sheikh Muhammad Al-Yacoubi||Islamic Preacher, Syria|
|124||Sheikh Mohammad Mustafa Al-Fakki Al-Yaqouti||Minister of State in the Sudanese Ministry of Awqaf, Sudan|
|125||HE Sheikh Muhammad Sadiq Muhammad Yusuf||Former Grand Mufti of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan|
|126||Prof. Zaki Zaidan||Professor of Shari’ah, Faculty of Law, Tanta University, Egypt|
(note: wikipedia sources are on the wiki page itself)
The encyclopedia of islam volume 6 page 564
islam, muslim, moslim, danger, election, trump, hillary, rutte, wilders, geert,